The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming almost every aspect of modern society, including medical imaging. In computed tomography (CT), AI holds the promise of enabling further reductions in patient radiation dose through automation and optimisation of data acquisition processes, including patient positioning and acquisition parameter settings. Subsequent to data collection, optimisation of image reconstruction parameters, advanced reconstruction algorithms, and image denoising methods improve several aspects of image quality, especially in reducing image noise and enabling the use of lower radiation doses for data acquisition. Finally, AI-based methods to automatically segment organs or detect and characterise pathology have been translated out of the research environment and into clinical practice to bring automation, increased sensitivity, and new clinical applications to patient care, ultimately increasing the benefit to the patient from medically justified CT examinations. In summary, since the introduction of CT, a large number of technical advances have enabled increased clinical benefit and decreased patient risk, not only by reducing radiation dose, but also by reducing the likelihood of errors in the performance and interpretation of medically justified CT examinations.